Almost any material can be analyzed with XPS as long as several conditions are met.
- Samples must be ultra high vacuum compatible (<10^8 torr) and therefore composed of a solid material (except for special cases e.g. ionic liquids). To ensure a timely analysis, drying in a desiccator or vacuum oven is recommended to remove any volatile liquids adsorbed in or on samples.
- For optimal data, a smooth surface of at least 1 mm² should available for analysis. For powdered samples, enough material should be submitted to cover this area.
- The sample stage has an area of 10.5 x 1.5 cm and can fit up to 8 samples of minimal size. Samples may be wider than the sample stage but portions of the sample outside of the stage area will not be accessible to the spectrometer. The maximum sample width is ~7.5 cm.
- Single sample holders are available for temperature studies.
- Sample thickness must be less than 0.65 cm.